Demand for most of Ambea’s services remains constant throughout the year. While certain services, such as schools or summer camps, show a different demand pattern, they have a marginal effect on the seasonal variation of total income.

The billing basis is usually calendar day, where every calendar day generates the same amount of income, and means that the number of calendar days per quarter is the most important factor underlying seasonal variations of income.

The prices for most services/agreements are adjusted annually on 1 January. Prices are adjusted on other dates in exceptional cases. These are usually linked to specific management contracts and framework agreements, or to new care receivers.

Ambea’s operations are labour intensive. This means that employees account for a high percentage of costs. Pay reviews normally take place at the end of the first quarter, or in the second quarter. Long weekends and bank holidays have a significant impact on personnel costs. In a normal year, most of these public holidays fall in the second quarter, followed by the fourth quarter. In the third quarter, both personnel costs and other costs are lower than in other quarters.

Overall, this means that earnings are strongest in the third quarter and weakest in the second quarter. Earnings in the first quarter are usually slightly stronger than in the fourth quarter. Seasonal variations are strongest in Altiden and Stendi, while Nytida and Vardaga show relatively lower seasonal variations.